OPSC Junior Lecturer Syllabus for Anthropology & Exam Pattern


If you want to be a Junior lecturer in Anthropology in Odisha then you have to appear the OPSC OES Junior Lecturer Recruitment Examination. This exam contains FOUR papers out of which TWO Papers are General English and General Knowledge carrying 50 Marks Each. Another TWO Anthropology Stream Paper (Paper-I and Paper-II) each carrying 200 Marks. Full mark of the Examination is 500 Marks. OPSC Junior Lecturer Syllabus for Anthropology is described with full details.

Junior Lecturer Anthropology Exam Pattern :

1. General English : 50 Marks

2. General Knwoledge : 50 Marks

3. Anthropology Paper-I : 200 Marks

4. Anthropology Paper-II : 200 Marks.

         Total Marks          : 500 Marks

If you want to see the General English and General Knowledge Syllabus and Exam pattern for OPSC OES Junior Lecturer then click here.

OPSC Junior Lecturer Syllabus for Anthropology


Unit – I 

History and Development of Social and Cultural Anthropology. Basic Concepts: Simple Society, Complex Society, Community, Culture, Civilization, Primary and Secondary Groups, Cultural Relativism and Ethnocentrism, Ethnicity, Globalization, and Postmodern Anthropology. Social Organization, Social System, Social Structure, Social Process, Social Function, Values and World View. Types of Marriage: Monogamy,
Polygamy, Preferential and Prescriptive, Endogamy, Exogamy, Parallel and Cross Cousin. Types and Functions of Family. Types of Kinship Terms, Types and Structure of Descent Groups. Types of Kin Group,  Alliance Theory.

Unit – II 

Definition, Nature and Characteristics of Culture. Paradoxes of Culture. Types of Culture Change: Innovation, Invention, Diffusion, Acculturation, Assimilation, Attenuation, Integration. Cultural Adaptation: Enculturation
and Socialization. Concepts and Theories of Religion, Religion, Magic and Science, Religious Functionaries. Types of Political Organization, State and Stateless Societies. Forms and Agencies of Social Control, Social Sanction, Law and Justice, Concepts of Production, Consumption, Exchange and Distribution. Primitive And Peasant Economy, Reciprocity And Redistribution, Types And Technological Levels Of Economy: Foraging,
Hunting, Pastoralism, Shifting Cultivation. Terrace Cultivation, Dry and Wet Cultivation, Horticulture and Industrial.

Unit – III 

Methodological Perspectives in Anthropology. Field Work And Field Work Traditions In Anthropology, Methodological Approaches In Anthropology: Holistic, Emic And Etic, Synchronic And Diachronic, Testing Of Hypothesis. Types of Research Design. Techniques of Data Collection and Their Types: Observation, Interview, Case Study, Schedule and Questionnaire. Qualitative and Quantitative Methods. Types of Sampling and Their Application. Methods of Comparison, PRA And RRA Techniques, Sociogram, Projective Techniques, Type of Scaling Techniques, Methods of Visual Anthropology, Measurement of Central Tendencies, Frequency Distribution, Standard Deviation, Standard Error, Chi-Square Test, Coefficient of Co Variation And Co-Efficient of Correlation. And Co-Efficient of Correlation.

Unit – IV –

Emergence Of Anthropology As An Empirical Discipline, Anthropology As Natural Science And Natural History, Classical Evolutionism, Diffusionism, Structuralism, Structural-Functionalism,
Functionalism, Neo-Evolutionism, Configurational Approach And Culturological Approach To The Study of Culture, Post-Structuralism, Symbolic And Interpretive Anthropology, Postmodern Anthropology, Concepts of Culture And Personality. Individual, Culture and Society, Types of Personality Formation and Determinants, Types of Personality, Personality and Social Structure, Functions of Personality, Psychology of Culture Change, Diachronic And Synchronic Study of Culture and Personality. Relation between Language and Culture, Classification of Language, Functional Study of Language, Structural Analysis in Linguistics and Anthropology, Language and Communication.

Unit – V –

Approaches to the Study of Indian Civilization. Concepts of Little Tradition and Great Tradition, Unity and Diversity, Universalization and Parochialisation. Relevance of Village Studies, Types of Village. Caste as a Concept and System, Origin of Caste, Jajmani System, Dominant Caste, Caste and Politics, Problems of Scheduled Caste. Folk-Urban and Tribe-Caste Contrast and Continuum. Sacred Complex Studies in India. Scheduled Tribes and Their Types, Distribution and Classification of Tribal Languages, Peasant Society and Culture. Problems of Minorities.

Unit – VI 

Problems in Tribal Society: Land Alienation, Shifting Cultivation, Housing, Health, Nutrition and Sanitation, Indebtedness, Alcoholism, Bonded Labour, Child Labour, Education, Poverty and Gender Issues. Problems of Displacement and Rehabilitation. Development Strategies, Policies, Plans and Programmes of Tribal Development. Approaches to Tribal Development, Role of Anthropology in Tribal and Rural Development, Types of Tribal Movement in India. New Panchayati Raj System: PESA Act and Gram Sabha. Role of N.G.Os in Development.

Unit – VII 

The New Development Paradigm: Anthropology of Development and Anthropology in Development. Applied and Action Anthropology. Meanings & Characteristics and Indices of Economic Development, Social and Cultural Dimensions of Economic Development, Development and Under-development. The Third World profile. Regional Imbalances and Regional Development in India. Poverty Alleviation Programmes in India, Agricultural and Industrial Development in Rural India. Regional Development in India. Quality of life and Collective Well being. Resources (Human and Natural) and their utilization in Odisha.

Unit – VIII

Problems of Development. Socio-cultural Barriers and Stimulants to Development. Economic Development and Social change, Modernization and Development. Culture of Development & Development of Culture.
Planned Development in India, Planning in India: Centralised, De-centralised, Top-bottom, Bottom-top, Sectoral and Integrated. Constitutional safequards and protective legislations for SCs and STs in India. Gender and Development. Environment and Development, Health and Development, Education and Development. Theories of Economic Development (Adam Smith, Devis Richarod, Thomas Malthus, J.S. Mills
Myrdal, Schumacher, Marx, Schumpteter and Amartya Sen) Globolization, Liberlisation and Development.


Unit – I

Aims and scope of Biological Anthropology, History and development of Biological/Physical Anthropology, Application of biological anthropology, Recent trends in biological anthropology. Theories of organic evolution: Lamarckism, Darwinism, Synthetic theory, Origins of Man: “Out of Africa model” and “Multiregional Model”, Principles of evolution: Convergence evolution and Divergent evolution. Evolution and adaptation

Unit – II

Man’s place in Animal Kingdom, Characteristic features of living primates , Primate evolution with special reference to skull, law, limbs, dentition and brain, Primate fossils: Aegyptopithecus, Propliopithecus, Dryopithecus, Ramapithecus ; Primate social behavour; Erect posture and bipedalism , Stages of human evolution: Australopithecine stage, Homo-erectus stage, Neanderthal stage( Conservative and progressive variety )Homo-sapien-sapiens stage : (Cro-Magnon Man , Grimaldi Man & Chancelade Man )

Unit – III 

Living Human variation: Concepts of race, Biological concept of race Racial classification of major races of world population, Racial Criteria: Metric, Non-metric, genetic, Racial Classification of Indian population (Risley, Guha and Sarkar), Distribution of Genetic variation: ABO Blood group, Rh Blood group, MN blood group; distribution of genetic disorders: sickle cell anaemia, Thalassemia, G6PD Deficiency.

Unit – IV

Human genetics: Scope and development, Mendel’s Law and its application to human population, Inheritance of genetic traits in Man: Autosomal, Sex-linked characters, methods of studying Heredity: Twin method, Pedigree method, Hardy-Weinberg Law & its application in human population, Genetic polymorphism: Balanced & Transient, Chromosome Karyotypes in man, Chromosomal abnormality in man, Structure & function of DNA and RNA, Replication of DNA, Recombinant Technology, Application areas of human genetics: Pre-natal diagnosis, genetic counseling, paternity determination, DNA finger printing. Factors affecting genetic structure of human population: mutation, selection, drift and gene flow

Unit – V

Definition & Scope of prehistoric Archaeology, Geological frame work : An outline of Pleistocene epoch, Glacial and Interglacial period in Europe and India, Causes and consequences of glaciations; methods of dating: Relative dating – study of stratigraphy, Pollen Analysis, Paleontology; Absolute dating – Radio carbon dating, Potassium – Argon method;, Thermoluminiscence method; Concept of Three age system of cultural
chronology; Prehistoric Technology & Tool types of Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic Cultures. History and development of museums in the

Unit – VI 

Lower Paleolithic Cultures of Africa and South Asia (India): Pebble tool culture in Africa(evidence from Olduvai Gorge) and India (Sohan valley Culture), Achulian Culture of Africa and Achulian Cultural of peninsular India, Middle stone age cultures of Africa and Middle Palaeolithic culture of India, Late stone age culture of Africa, Upper Paleolithic culture in India, Mesolithic and Neolithic culture of Europe of India, Proto-historic culture of South Asia (India) – Chalcolithic culture of India , Indus Valley civilization: Salient features (Town planning, settlement, Agriculture, Art & Craft, Metal technology, Trade, religion, burials etc. Origins and causes of decline of the Indus civilization.

Unit – VII 

Ecological anthropology :definition and scope ;Aspects of ecological anthropology :environmental determinism, environmental possiblism, cultural ecology, population ecology, system ecology, ethno-ecology,
palaeoecology, social ecology, ;Eco-system: structure and function, major eco-systems of the world , Bio-cultural adaptation to cold, heat and high altitude, Energetic and human society, Ecological ethnology: ecological adaptation of hunter-gathers, Nomads , and Island communities ,carrying capacity of ecosystem, cultural component of eco-systems; culture as the master variable, environment and sustainable development,
Environmental problems: causes and consequences of degradation of land ,water ,air. Global warming and Green house effect, Effects of environmental pollutants on human health Environmental policy in India

Unit-VIII :

Medical anthropology : scope and application ; socio-cultural and bio-medical concept of health, disease and illness; Ethno-medicine; Symbolic aspects of sickness and healing, An outline of medical systems in India , Epidemiology of communicable and non-communicable diseases; Determinants of health: Socio-cultural, environmental and genetic; National health policy; Population policy in India ;Nutrition policy of India ,Factors affecting fertility and mortality in India ; Problems of food security and malnutrition in India ,Reproductive and child health problem in India , National Rural Health Mission : Objectives and perspectives ,Problems of aged in India , Gender and health

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